In Russian language


In the Povest vremennykh let ("Tale of Bygone Years") Pskov is mentioned first time as an already existing town dating back to 903. In the epoch of the Kiev Russia Pskov played the role of one of the main strong points on the north-western frontiers of the state, a craftsmen and trading town. The creation of Pskov Cremlin - detinets - on the bay at the junction of the Pskova and the Velikaya rivers, dates back to the end of the X century. The Pskov detinets stood the sieges, behind its wooden walls the citizens were hiding from the enemies, the veche (a kind of old Russian Duma) gathered here. Here was built the first church of the Holly Trinity. The existing Trinity Cathedral is the architectural monument of the XVII century, forth in succession.

In the XIV century all the lands adjoining the detinets from the south were walled first with wood and later with stones. It was known as "persi". At that time extensive construction of stone churches started. In the second half of the XIV century the first original architecture school was formed. In the XV-XVI centuries the stone masters from Pskov were often asked to work in Moscow and other cities. In the XIV century the detinets more and more often referred to as Krom. In the end of the XIV century the walls of the detinets were being made of stones, the first towers with the passageways - Velikaya and Smerdya - were constructed. The stone walls and the towers of Krom, which one can admire today, were rebuilt in the XIX century. By this time only the fundaments of the ancient towers were preserved. On the spot of Smerdya was created the Dovmontov tower. A part of the ancient town adjoining Krom from this side is called Dovmontov town. On its territory preserved a great number of churches' fundaments clustering to each other. Those are the remains of the architectural monuments of the XII-XVII centuries. During the excavations there was found a well preserved fresco painting dating back to the end of the XIV beginning of the XVI centuries.

In the XVI century Pskov turned into a powerful defense town. In those days there were only two fortresses, surrounding the entire inhabited territory - Pskov and Smolensk. By that time the Pskov fortress had about 40 towers and the length of its walls was 9 kilometres. Only a tiny part of the ancient fortress survived till our days. On the territory of the old fortress there were located Krom, Dovmontov town, Sredny town, Okolny town, Zapskovye, Zaveilichye. During the Northern War many towers and some of the churches were covered up with the earth and turned into the bastions. The most ancient out of preserved stone buildings are the Spaso- Preobrazhensky Cathedral and Cathedral of the Spaso-Mirozhsky monastery (1156). Some of the architectural monuments of the XV-XVII centuries survived till our days. Among those are the churches of Vassiliy on the hill (1413), Nikola from Usokha (1536), Ioakim and Anna (XVI century).